AMX™ - Anammox


Tomorrow Water’s patented AMX™ process is a next-generation nitrogen removal technology. AMX™ slashes nitrification energy use by two-thirds while eliminating the need for chemical carbon sources for denitrification. Additionally, a 90% less biomass yield can be achieved by anammox, making this process an energy and cost-effective alternative for conventional nitrogen removal. Tomorrow Water is pioneering new shortcuts in ammonia removal and is applying AMX™ to municipal sidestreams, mainstreams, livestock wastewater, food processing wastewater, landfill leachate, and industrial wastewater.

-Reduce O&M cost

  • Reduce energy cost for aeration with 60% lower oxygen consumption

-Requires no external carbon

  • Decrease cost of chemicals required

  • Enhance biogas production via carbon diversion

-Produce 90% less biomass

  • Minimize hauling costs for sludge

  • Improve sludge treatment capacity

  • Reduce backwash water usage by bio-filter system

-Generates Zero Carbon Emission

  1. Does not produce CO₂

  2. Potential to earn Carbon Credits



1. Unique Anammox Bacteria

Tomorrow Water’s unique Anammox Solution: Candidatus “Brocadia sinica” JPN1

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This strain is considered to be one of the best anammox strains because it demonstrates excellent growth rates in both high and low substrate conditions, and maintains its activity even at high salt concentrations. It achieves 2x higher growth rates and has higher salinity resistance (up to 3%) compared to other strains.

Learn more about “Brocadia sinica” JPN1



2. Resilient & reliable 2-stage process


The AMX™ two-stage system provides maximum process control by isolating nitritation and AMX™ populations

Unlike most anammox technologies with a single reactor, we have developed a two-stage system that separates the nitration tank from the anammox tank. Separate tanks are beneficial for securing two different microorganisms - aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOBs) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOBs). Separate enrichment of AOBs and AnAOBs in a two-stage system enables sustained high nitrogen removal even under fluctuating influent loading conditions.


Moreover, the two-stage AMX™ is able to quickly recover from shocks through independent reseeding o either AOBs or AnAOBs, whereas in a single reactor, both communities must be recovered concurrently, which can take a lot longer. Tomorrow Water was also able to shrink the footprint by developing an air-lifted granule reactor (AGR), which fosters a faster reaction rate and settling speed for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) granulation for super-efficient footprints.



3. Applications to various industries

Tomorrow Water has been expanding our AMX™ portfolio into applications such as municipal sidestream and mainstream, livestock digestation, industrial processes, and landfill leachate.

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4. Innovating with AMX for Tomorrow

Tomorrow Water has been pushing the boundaries and finding new ways to use AMX along with other technologies to increase functionality.


Using CRISPR to establish transgenic derivatives of Anammox bacteria

Low temperatures in mainstream treatment has presented challenges for AMX™, as temperatures are generally below 20°C and inhibits AMX™ activity. Using genome editing technology (CRISPR), Tomorrow Water has been conducting innovative research to enhance temperature resistance in our AMX™ culture.

Specific cytotoxicity of comammox bacteria (complete ammonia oxidizers that harm AOBs and AnAOBs via full nitrification) using CRISPR enzyme treatments could selectively wash unwanted competitors out of the process.

We believe our work with gene editing technology is one of the first in the environmental technology field.


Membrane-biofilm Reactor (MBfR)

Tomorrow Water is developing a single-stage Membrane-biofilm Reactor system (MBfR), using hollow fiber membranes for aeration to maximize oxygen transfer. The efficiency of the single-stage MBfR significantly reduces energy costs, while simultaneously enriching both AOBs and AnAOBs.


AMX + BBF Biofiltration for Mainstream Treatment

In mainstream treatment, removing organic carbon prior to the AMX™ process is important in order to control heterotrophic growth, since heterotrophic denitrifiers would easily outgrow anammox bacteria under excessive carbon conditions. But aerobic organics removal prior to AMX™ requires lots of energy, and wastes valuable carbon which can be recovered. To conserve more energy, intensifying carbon redirection at primary treatment has become essential to recovering energy while also protecting mainstream AMX™ from the heterotrophs outgrowth. To this end, we have developed a high-rate primary treatment process using Tomorrow Water’s BBF Biofilitration System. BBF has been registered in WERF’s Lift Program for it’s carbon redirection functionality.




AMX™ - Sidestream


AMX™ for sidestream can decrease plant operating costs by 15-40% and avoid costly violation fees.


Streams such as filtrates, centrates, and digester supernatants make up only 1-2% of the total flow at WWTPs, but add approximately 15-40% of the nitrogen load to the mainstream treatment line.

Our versatile AMX™ solution is a highly effective method of removing nitrogen from sidestream before returning it to the headworks. Compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification (NDN), applying AMX™ to municipal sidestream:

Reduces carbon requirements by 100% (for complete removal of inorganic nitrogen)

Reduces oxygen requirements by approximately 60%

Reduces biomass production by approximately 90%

Ultra-Resilient Two-Stage System


Tomorrow Water’s solution for maximum process control in AMX™ treatment was to develop a Two-Stage Partial Nitritation + Anammox (PN+A) System.

Under a two-stage system, stable operations is achieved by the separate enrichment of AOBs & AMX. Along with our uniquely efficient Anammox strain, Tomorrow Water’s AMX™ is capable of handling:

  1. High temperature range

  2. High COD, High TSS

  3. Low alkalinity



AMX - Mainstream


It has been a challenge to apply AMX to mainstream treatment mainly due to low AnAOB growth caused by low temperature, limited substrates, and high competitiveness of other heterotrophs and nitrite oxidizing bacteria.

In conjunction with our other technologies, we have developed a high-rate primary treatment process using our BBF Biofiltration system. Our AMX BBF for mainstream confirmed a high nitrogen load removal rate 2-3 times higher than denitrification processes. Tomorrow Water is leading the effort for mainstream AMX development, with demonstration pilots at California’s most advanced treatment facilities, including demonstrations for AMX for both mainstream and sidestream applications at the Hyperion WRRF in Los Angeles.





AMX™ - Industrial High-Strength Nitrogen Wastewater


AMX™ for Livestock Waste & Digestate


Indiana’s new law has enacted stringent nitrogen regulations for dairy farms across the state. To mitigate the harmful effects of nitrogen in the environment, Indiana farmers are now required to remove significant amounts of nitrogen from manure or from the effluent in their digesters. Otherwise farmers need to purchase 10 times more land for their cows (the new law requires 10 acres of land per one head of cow). 

With decades of experience in livestock wastewater treatment, Tomorrow Water has developed a process utilizing AMX to remove nitrogen from the source or after anaerobic digestion.

Using AMX™ can offer a stable nitrogen removal solution with these benefits: 

  • Reduced footprint

  • Stable operation tactics

  • Economical solution

Tomorrow Water is currently conducting AMX demonstrations at BOS Dairy Farm in Indiana to meet stringent discharge standards for livestock wastewater.

AMX™ for Landfill Leachate

Tomorrow Water is currently conducting joint research with the Seoul Metropolitan Landfill, which is the largest in the world and produces 4600 tons of leachate per day. At the first zero liquid discharge (ZLD) landfill site in the world, AMX will serve as part of the water-energy portfolio, saving at least $3 million/year in chemical and additional power costs.


We are currently testing AMX for industrial processes at Samsung Electronics.

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