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Jung- Rang, South Korea

Primary Treatment

The Jungrang municipal treatment facility is one of the biggest in Seoul. This plant has replaced primary clarifiers in its 66MGD treatment train with underground BBF primary filters, and added 132 MGD in additional BBF biofilters to manage wet weather flow.


To upgrade facilities and move treatment train underground to allow for above ground land repurposing.


  • Underground treatment train

  • Modernization and retrofit

  • TMDL (BOD)

Capacity: 66 MGD

Process: BBF-F

In Operation: 2016 - Present

Aerial view of the Jungrang BBF retrofit .

Aerial view of the Jungrang BBF retrofit .


65-80% smaller footprint than primary clarifiers

Repurpose your old primary clarifiers to increase capacity or upgrade your process

Up to 50% higher BOD removal than settling

Never worry about primary sludge carryover again

Zero chemicals, low energy

Can be installed underground for unparalleled odor control and unique land repurposing

BBF Space-Savings vs.
Conventional Primary Clarifiers


What Makes It Possible

Simultaneous primary & wet weather flow treatment

Gravity-based, zero-energy backwash uses only process water for cleaning

3D Section View of BBF at Jungrang.

3D Section View of BBF at Jungrang.


Patented new media with the highest solids loading rate of any biofiltration process in the world

Simultaneous solids and soluble organics removal



Jung-Rang Facility Structure Projection

Jung-Rang Process Flow Diagram


BBF vs. Conventional Primary Clarifiers

BBF Typical Primary Clarifier
Capital Cost
• Total Cost ($USD)
• Per Volume ($/m3)
$100 per m3 ($.0.38 per gallon)
$100-120 per m3 ($0.38-0.46 per gallon)
Detention Time 10 min 120 min(1)
Overflow Rate (m3/m2/d) 120m3/m2/d (3,000 gal/ft2) 40(1)m3/m2/d (1,000 gal/ft2)
Footprint (m2/m3d) 0.009 (35%) 0.025 (100%)
TSS Removal 61% 50%
BOD Removal 43% 30%
TP Removal 24% 15%
Sludge Density (%TS) 5% 3%(1)
Energy Use
• Total (kWh/d)
• Cost Average ($USD/d)
Head Loss 2m 0.3m
Chemical Use (AlSO4+Floc)
• Concentration (mg/l influent)
• Cost ($USD/day)

[1] Metcalf & Eddy: Wastewater Engineering, 5th Edition, 2014
[2] WEF Manual of Practice No.32: Energy Conservation in Water and Wastewater Treatment Facilities, 2009