In high strength organic wastewater, biogas production, sludge reduction, and nitrogen removal are necessary. COWT + Biogas plant + AMX are implemented to increase Biogas production and decrease sludge volume, while using minimal energy and without conducting carbon nitrogen removal. These technologies are capable of addressing the issues of livestock wastewater, sludge from wastewater treatment plants, food wastes, high solid organic wastes, and high strength nitrogen wastewater.

COWT: Cyclical Organic Waste Thermal Hydrolysis

BGP: Biogas Production (Anaerobic Digester)

AMX: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox)

TWF process diagram ver5.png


CBA process is one of the most advanced side stream sludge treatment process utilizing thermal hydrolysis, biogas production and Anammox.

Benefits of using CBA process:

  1. Biogas production increase by thermal hydrolysis

  2. Effective biogas effluent (digestate) treatment by Anammox

  3. Achieve net plus energy cycle


  1. Thermal Hydrolysis can increase organic N and NBD COD

  2. This can cause upset of anaerobic digestion and harmful to Anammox treatment

Therefore, advantage of each unit technology can be offset by unwanted side effect.

High COD from THP can:

  1. Unstabilize AD performance resulting in more COD in the digestate

  2. Potentially upset downstream process (i.e., AOB and Anammox)

It is claimed inhibition can be overcome by dilution, increasing aeration, and dosing optimal coagulant to remove colloidal COD.

However, it is NOT entirely clear what specific inhibitory compounds could be and how to address them properly.


A well-balanced process train is the solution